Raj os partam…

 

In its Interpretation Act of 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions:

The expression British India shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty’s dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India, or through any Governor or other officer subordinate to the Governor-General of India. The expression India shall mean British India together with any territories of an Native Prince or Chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty, exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any Governor or other officer subordinate to the Governor-General of India.

File:IGI british indian empire1909reduced.jpg

The British Raj extended over all regions of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

In addition, it included Aden Colony (from 1858 to 1937), Lower Burma (from 1858 to 1937), Upper Burma (from 1886 to 1937), British Somaliland (briefly from 1884 to 1898), and Singapore (briefly from 1858 to 1867).

Burma was directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948. The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf (hoje os Emirados Árabes Unidos!!!) were theoretically princely states of British India until 1946 and used the rupee as their unit of currency.  Ver imagem em tamanho real

Among other countries in the region, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was a British Crown Colony, but not part of British India. The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them, were recognized by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861. However, the issue of sovereignty was left undefined. The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India.

E o ‘parcial’:

The British Indian consisted of two divisions: British India and the Native States or Princely States.

(a Ver imagem em tamanho reallaranja escuro no mapa abaixo…)

Suzerainty over 175 Princely States, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by central government of British India under the Viceroy; the remaining, approximately 500, states were dependents of the provincial governments of British India under a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or Chief Commissioner.

A clear distinction between “dominion” and “suzerainty” was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local; in contrast, the courts of the Princely States existed under the authority of the respective rulers of those states.

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