Pontes

A NASA revela imagens de uma antiquíssima ponte – feita pelo homem – entre a Índia e o Sri Lanka

“Space images taken by NASA reveal a mysterious ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. The recently discovered bridge currently named as Adam’s Bridge is made of chain of shoals 30 km long.

“The bridge’s unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is man made. The first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the about 1,750,000 years ago and the bridge’s age is also almost equivalent. This information is a crucial aspect for an insight into the mysterious legend  Ramayana, which was supposed to have taken place in treta yuga (more than 1,700,000 years ago).

In this epic, there is a mentioning about a bridge, which was built between Rameshwaram (India) and Srilankan coast under the supervision of a dynamic and invincible figure called Rama who is supposed to be the incarnation of the supreme.

The bridge was first mentioned in the 9th century by Ibn Khordadbeh in his Book of Roads and Kingdoms (ca. 850 AD) and was called Set Bandhai or “Bridge of the Sea”. The name Rama’s Bridge or Rama Setu (Sanskrit; setu: bridge) was given to this bridge of shoals in Rameshwaram, as Hindu legend identifies it with the bridge built by the Vanara (monkey-men) army of Rama , which he used to reach Sri Lanka and rescue his wife Sita from the Rakshasa king, Ravana, as stated in the Sanskrit epic Ramayana.

 

It is called as Adam’s Bridge in the west and the name probably comes from an Islamic legend, according to which Adam used the bridge to reach Adam’s Peak in Sri Lanka, where he stood repentant on one foot for 1,000 years, leaving a large hollow mark resembling a footprint. Both the peak and the bridge are named after this legend.

JÁ AGORA, a edição do New York Times de 3 abril 1899:

In a recent number of the Indian Sporting Times a writer who signs himself ‘Ace of Spades’ condemns the new Calcutta card game, which, it has been said, would e all the rage at the London clubs next season. The game is named, as will be recalled, “BRIDGE”. It is a very poor game…, “…a pastime of mediocrity. The greatest of whist duffers may play bridge and escape condemnation. … It is true enough that a bridge table is almost feminine in its loquacity and childish mirth (nas conversas que gera e no seu júbilo infantil), which, in the eyes of true card players, renders it a conspicuous nuisance (um incómodo de assinalar).”

De facto, “…in 1903, some of the British civil servants stationed in India created a method of bidding the trump suit, coined ‘auction bridge.’ A later account dates auction bridge back to 1894, with Turkish or Russian origin from Plevna during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878.”

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Ver imagem em tamanho realE, “Going back to the turn of the twentieth century the actually idea of a bidding auction was introduced. It was at this time that an open dummy hand was first used, following the precedent of Dummy Whist. According to folklore this was first played in India by three isolated British soldiers unable to find a fourth.”

Dizia-se que na embaixada britânica em Ulan Bator havia sempre 4 diplomatas, para poderem fazer uma mesa de bridge..

Ver imagem em tamanho real

 

 

 

O site da Contract Bridge Association indiana, http://www.cba.org.in/ , não fala na história do jogo. Também há este,  http://www.bridge-india.com/, mas não se vai muito mais longe.          

 E também há: http://media.www.diamondbackonline.com/media/storage/paper873/news/2005/04/14/NewsonCampus/Bring.On.A.Table.Of.Gray.Hairs-2321503.shtml

Junior computer science major Prahalad Rajkumar represented India at the junior world championships in bridge.  A wikipedia apenas adianta que, “In 1904 auction bridge (also known as royal auction bridge), was developed, in which the players bid in a competitive auction to decide the contract and declarer. The object became to make at least as many tricks as were contracted for and penalties were introduced for failing to do so.” 

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